The seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries reason ruled as a god , and people like Voltaire revolted against it. Rousseau also led the revolt against reason and he made nature the sole authority over human affairs. Scheffler’s writing: traces of it, large or small, can be found in such places as Justifying Curriculum Decisions,” Toward an Analytic Philosophy of Education,” chapter five of Science and Subjectivity, (possibly) chapter four of Conditions of Knowledge, and undoubtedly other places besides.
Topics will include: progressive and child-centred education; liberal education; liberal theory and critiques of liberalism; radical and libertarian educational traditions; educational equality; privatization and marketisation; state control of education; faith schools and common schools; parents’ and children’s educational rights.
Also Scheffler’s Conditions of Knowledge (1965), still the best introduction to the epistemological side of philosophy of education, and his Reason and Teaching (1973/1989), which in a wide-ranging and influential series of essays makes the case for regarding the fostering of rationality/critical thinking as a fundamental educational ideal.
Hence the key philosophical ideas stressed in critically oriented philosophies of education (reflection, counterhegemony, a critique of power, an emphasis upon difference, and so on) derive their force from their capacity to challenge a presumably oppressive dominant society and enable put-upon individuals and groups to recognize and question their circumstances and to be moved to change them.
What educators should do is to provide guidance, or collaboration, with little guidance, less telling, without punishment, by giving chance to learners to discover, termed as scaffolding children learning.” This philosophy has shifted paradigm of teaching from less participatory/involving to methods of teaching and learning to more involving participatory methods in most schools of East Africa.